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Bikes—especially when heavily laden—are stable only as long as they keep moving. The same is sometimes said about China's economy. If it loses momentum, it will crash.

And since growth is the only. You've reached the end of this preview. Share this link with a friend: Other Related Materials pages. Ask a homework question - tutors are online. The aim, dramatically enough, was to reunite with lost Christians in the East and retake Jerusalem after an ultimate confrontation with Islam.

This religious zeal was a legacy of the violent Crusades that had tormented Europe for generations, and there was a rather fundamentalist spark motivating this higher purpose of the explorers.

The old tales that had exhilarated Europe for centuries were finally confirmed and it was with great eagerness that the early Portuguese went out to meet their Indian brethren. But if they expected the Christians of Kerala to revel in joy at being united with them and pledge unconditional loyalty, they were somewhat disappointed.

For the Malayali Christians responded with polite bewilderment and courtly indifference, rendering the Portuguese disheartened first and then positively enraged. He traversed the region, winning over substantial sections of people with the intellectual and religious merits of his faith.

He established seven churches in Kerala, and over time a proud Christian community evolved in the region. Like the Arabs, they were masters of business and emerged as a premier entrepreneurial class, even establishing partnerships with the immigrant Jews.

They maintained intimate links with Hindu society as well, developing a fascinating syncretism of culture in Kerala. Their churches, for instance, were modelled on Hindu temples and da Gama himself worshipped in a shrine to the goddess Bhagavathi, mistaking it for a chapel to the Madonna.

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St Thomas is even supposed to have had an intellectual debate on religion with this goddess at the Cranganore Temple. According to legend, the discussion got rather heated and a weary Bhagavathi decided to decamp and go back to rest in her shrine. Many Christians served alongside Hindu soldiers in regional militias and at the end of the sixteenth century, for example, the Rajah of Cochin is said to have employed thousands of Christians in his service.

In daily life too, Hindus and Christians interacted freely and the former treated them with great honour and respect. There was a fascinating intermingling of faith and culture throughout Kerala, and Christians were integral constituents of this rich social fabric, arguably more cosmopolitan and certainly less fanatic than in contemporary Europe.

After all, these Malayalis had been Christian long before Christianity had reached even the outskirts of Europe. Their liturgical language, similarly, was not Latin but Syriac, by virtue of which they were known as Syrian Christians.

Over the following centuries many were compelled to accept the Catholic faith and denounce the Eastern Orthodox rites of their ancestors. Eventually, a sizeable Catholic following also grew in the region under the Portuguese banner, along with a minor Luso-Indian population. In the years ahead, as more and more European missions reached Kerala, many new brands of the faith found welcome in the land, establishing other churches with their own distinctive features along the coast.


But if the nature of Christianity in Kerala seemed outlandish, what positively befuddled the Europeans were the peculiarities of Hindu society here. The Nairs, as these serpent worshippers were known, were a martial group, and the most exalted of them was none other than the Zamorin himself.

And their customs appeared even more bizarre than those of the Christians. Describing the Nairs, the diarist Duarte Barbosa paints a picturesque, typically exoticised summary of their general way of life: In these kingdoms … there is another sect of people called Nairs, who are the gentry, and have no other duty than to carry on war, and they continually carry their arms with them, which are swords, bows, arrows, bucklers, and lances. They all live with the kings, and some of them with other lords, relations of the king, and lords of the country, and with the salaried governors … And no one can be a Nair if he is not of good lineage.

They are very smart men, and much taken up with their nobility. They do not associate with any peasant, and neither eat nor drink except in the houses of other Nairs. These people accompany their lords day and night … These Nairs, besides being all of noble descent, have to be armed as knights by the hand of the King or lord with whom they live, and until they have been so equipped they cannot bear arms or call themselves Nairs … In general when these Nairs are seven years of age they are immediately sent to school to learn all manner of feats of agility and gymnastics for the use of their weapons …These Nairs when they enlist to live with the king, bind themselves and promise to die for him; and they do likewise with any other lord from whom they receive pay.

This law is observed by some and not by others; but their obligation constrains them to die at the hands of anyone who should kill the king or their lord; and some of them so observe it so that if in any battle their lord should be killed, they go and put themselves in the midst of the enemies who killed him, even should those be numerous, and he alone by himself dies there; but before falling he does what he can against them; and after that one is dead, another goes to take his place, and then another, so that sometimes ten or twelve Nairs die for their lord.

Families in such epic vendettas often prepared doggedly for years before assaulting each other on a chosen date in a great duel or full- fledged battle, witnessed by massive baying crowds. Their mission was to claim the lives of an equal number of princes from the house of the Zamorin, and it is said to have taken five years before the soldiers of Calicut put the last of these warriors to death, just outside the capital city.

Each man has a firelock, and at least one sword; but all those who wish to be thought as men of extraordinary courage carry two sabres. Indeed, parallels to their way of cohabitation were difficult to find even in other parts of India, leave alone Europe. The Nairs, it so happened, were what we would today define as extremely liberal, and their women had enough personal freedom to scandalise foreign observers.

While everywhere else in the familiar world it was ordinary for men to keep numerous wives, here custom granted that privilege to women as well.


And ladies, high and low, vied to collect beaus and husbands with great avidity. Since this was translated into both French and German, it was presumably received with great interest and is now considered an early feminist work arguing for parity between the genders.

Peddling Prosperity by Paul Krugman

They were normally educated at least to a basic level and very often grew adept in the art of warfare also. One local Rajah in Kerala, for instance, maintained a palace guard of female archers when the Portuguese first met him, much to their astonishment.

In the Muslim royal family of Arakkal, women had equal rights of succession with male members of the house, ruling in their own right.

Females of royal blood moved about freely in society, unencumbered by purdah and that severe seclusion that was their fate in other parts of India. They commanded tremendous respect, besides actively participating in affairs that were the strict preserve of men in less-inclusive societies. When the Italian, Pietro Della Valle, visited the court of the Zamorin in , for instance, he observed many ladies in attendance there and two princesses even came up and studied him with a casual, self-assured confidence, as the following description confirms: Suddenly two girls, about twelve years of age, entered the court.

They wore no covering of any kind except a blue cloth about their loins; but their arms, ears, and necks were covered with ornaments of gold and precious stones. Their complexion was swarthy but clear enough; their shape was well proportioned and comely; and their aspect was handsome and well favoured … These two girls were in fact Infantas of the kingdom of Calicut. Upon their entrance all the courtiers paid them great reverence; and Della Valle and his companions rose from their seats, and saluted them … The girls talked together respecting the strangers; and one of them approached Della Valle and touched the sleeve of his coat with her hand, and expressed wonder at his attire.

Indeed they were as surprised at the dress of the strangers, as the strangers were at the strange appearance of the girls ….

There were higher cloisters round the court filled with women, who had come to behold the strangers. The Queen …stood apart in the most prominent place, with no more clothing than her daughters, but abundantly adorned with jewels. It was as if they all lived in a state of perpetual dishabille but the fact was that being bare- bosomed was considered perfectly respectable. Outsiders did feel this was somehow immoral but as F.

The princess too, of course, was unabashedly bare-breasted.

In , Kerala was unexpectedly drenched in war and blood as the dreaded armies of Hyder Ali of Mysore rained death on the Zamorin and his hapless aristocracy. The Muslim king pillaged and plundered, unleashing such formidable chaos that the Zamorin was compelled to send even his own women and children south as broken refugees.

And while the last of the great Zamorins of Calicut perished, thus, in inglorious flames, his feudatories and generals fled en masse, abandoning Kerala to the fiery ambitions of its invaders. Into the s the English East India Company took over the province, and the ancient clans, once active participants in that enthralling theatre of commerce and power, were reduced to mere landlords with hollow, wistful titles.

There was now no leader in the northern half of the coast, and all looked south where alone one prince succeeded in withstanding these convulsions of time, carrying his dynasty and house into modernity.

As the Zamorins of Calicut faded into oblivion, it was time for the Maharajahs of Travancore to emerge from the shadows. In , shortly before the last Zamorin was toppled in Calicut, a hitherto forgotten dynasty made a thunderous reappearance upon the political landscape of Kerala.

Their Jewish and Christian merchants had dominated commerce for long years until the Arabs combined with Calicut and transformed the rules of the game, leaving Quilon a shadow of its former greatness.

In the centuries that followed, the royal family there became so divided and diminished into feuding households, that they were practically nobodies in the larger scheme of things, their land a political backwater. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries when the Zamorin was forging grand alliances with Turkey and Egypt, deploying colossal armies in his wars against the Portuguese, here in the south its princes were fighting petty clannish battles with minor militias supplied by petty warlords.

In the early eighteenth century, however, this house, known as Kupaka, was to experience such a wonderful resurgence that all Kerala sat up and took notice. They had carved up the south into small principalities among their various offshoots, with the extreme south in the hands of the Rajah of Travancore.

Like Cochin, the prince of Travancore was perpetually vassal to one force or another. Isa Ye are my witnesses, saith the LORD, and my servant whom I have chosen: that ye may know and believe me, and understand that I am he: before me there was no God formed, neither shall there be after me.

His chastening is His judgment, and His judgments are proof of and demonstrate His love for us. While demonstrating His love for us, His chastening judgments also teach us of His righteousness.

The holy spirit reiterates this principle in the book of Hebrews: Heb And ye have forgotten the exhortation which speaketh unto you as unto children, My son, despise not thou the chastening of the Lord, nor faint when thou art rebuked of him: Heb For whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth, and scourgeth every son whom he receiveth.

Heb If ye endure chastening, God dealeth with you as with sons; for what son is he whom the father chasteneth not? Rev And when they shall have finished their testimony, the beast that ascendethout of the bottomless pit shall make war against them, and shall overcome them, and kill them.

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Rev And their dead bodies shall lie in the street of the great city, which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, where also our Lord was crucified. Rev And they of the people and kindreds and tongues and nations shall see their dead bodies three days and an half, and shall not suffer their dead bodies to be put in graves.

And who is sufficient for these things? Psa For there are no bands in their death: but their strength is firm. Psa They are not in trouble as other men; neither are they plagued like other men.

Psa Therefore pride compasseth them about as a chain; violence covereth them as a garment. Psa Their eyes stand out with fatness: they have more than heart could wish. Psa They are corrupt, and speak wickedly concerning oppression: they speak loftily.

Psa They set their mouth against the heavens, and their tongue walketh through the earth. Psa Therefore his people return hither: and waters of a full cup are wrung out to them. Psa And they say, How doth God know? Psa Behold, these are the ungodly, who prosper in the world; they increase in riches. Psa Verily I have cleansed my heart in vain, and washed my hands in innocency.

Psa For all the day long have I been plagued, and chastened every morning. Psa If I say, I will speak thus; behold, I should offend against the generation of thy children.

Psa When I thought to know this, it was too painful for me; Psa Until I went into the sanctuary of God; then understood I their end. After telling us judgment must begin at the house of God and asking us to consider what will be the reward of the wicked who are not now being judged, Peter tells us: 1Pe Wherefore let them that suffer according to the will of God commit the keeping of their souls to him in well doing, as unto a faithful Creator.

In this age, redemption applies only to the redeemed.Pages to import images to Wikidata All stub articles. It was a prince of Travancore by the now-hallowed name of Martanda Varma who achieved this dramatic revitalisation of the Kupaka dynasty, resurrecting their former pride and standing.

These people accompany their lords day and night … These Nairs, besides being all of noble descent, have to be armed as knights by the hand of the King or lord with whom they live, and until they have been so equipped they cannot bear arms or call themselves Nairs … In general when these Nairs are seven years of age they are immediately sent to school to learn all manner of feats of agility and gymnastics for the use of their weapons …These Nairs when they enlist to live with the king, bind themselves and promise to die for him; and they do likewise with any other lord from whom they receive pay.

They were rendered ordinary, like the other parvenu forces thrashing about on the coast. January 3,