Request PDF on ResearchGate | Handbook of Benzoxazine Resins | This handbook provides a wide overview of the field, fundamental understanding of the. PDF | On Jan 1, , Jia Liu and others published “Main-chain type T.; Ishida, H. in “Handbook of Benzoxazine Resins, Chapter 18” Ishida, H.; Agag, T. Eds. download Handbook of Benzoxazine Resins - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. DRM-free (EPub, PDF, Mobi). × DRM-Free Easy - Download and start reading.

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Key Features Provides thorough coverage of the chemistry and applications of benzoxazine resins with an evidence-based approach to enable. Phenolic thermosetting resin products meet some of these requirements, Ishida, H.; Agag, T. Handbook of Benzoxazine Resins; Elsevier. Andreas Taden, in Handbook of Benzoxazine Resins, Benzoxazines are considered as a promising class of thermosetting resins that can become a key.

In this study, it is assumed that com- plete conversion is achieved for experiments at heating rates of Fig. The figures show a shift of the exothermic peak to a higher temperature by increas- of the exothermic peak temperature is observed and the results ing the heating rate. In addition, the systems show that the heating are summarized in Table 1.

Multifunctional Benzoxazines Feature Low Polymerization Temperature and Diverse Polymer Structures

The average activation energy values rates have slight influence on the amount of exothermic reaction. For example, the average activation energies for analysis, the activation energy is obtained from the logarithmic polymerization of pHBA-pt, P-pt and pHBA using the Kissinger plots of heating rate versus the reciprocal of the absolute peak method are However, temperature of the monomers as depicted in Fig.

In addition, a the Ozawa method shows the values of average activation energies good linear relationship between the heating rate and the inverse for polymerization of pHBA-pt, P-pt and pHBA as Sample code P-pt pHBA-pt Non-functionalized benzoxazine mono- Catalyst No. DH: the amount of exothermic peak.

The heat of polymerization shows The effect of adding catalyst on the polymerization and thermal also a significant decrease compared to the control in both P-pt and stability behavior of P-pt and pHBA-pt was studied using DSC and pHBA-pt.

In this study, the polymerization behavior after adding p-tol- peak compared to the control indicating that the polymerization uenesulfonic acid PTSA , 1-methyl-imidazole IMD and lithium occurs in an early stage at lower temperatures. Although LiI shows iodide LiI were tested. To these monomers, 3. The mixture was then dried at room This is attributed to the catalytic effect of PTSA for both methylol temperature in a vacuum oven to remove the solvent.

It should condensation and ring-opening polymerization. Therefore, a signif- be mentioned that under this condition no polymerization took icant shift to low temperatures in the case of PTSA stimulates its place. The resulting homogeneous mixtures were placed in a DSC use as an efficient catalyst for these monomers.

The efficient catalysts The summary of the results is shown in Table 2. Both monomers such as PTSA and LiI, might affect benzoxazine polymerization and show the highest exothermic peak temperature when no catalyst methylol condensation for pHBA-pt.

These catalysts might com- was added. However, adding IMD as a ring-opening. The with the effective catalysts did not show substantial difference heat of polymerization also shows a slight decrease compared to from the P-pt case.

On the other hand, these two catalysts show the control in both P-pt and pHBA-pt. On the other hand, adding dramatic exotherm peak reduction for P-pt. However, the heat zene ring, in particular at the para-position with respect to the M.

However, two-steps weight loss was observed in the case 0. Since the methylol functionality is 60 the only difference between pHBA-pt and P-pt, methylol condensa- tion is the possible reaction that takes place in one of the steps. Therefore, methylol condensation 0. Adding catalyst accel- 20 0. This result is consistent with the TGA thermogram which reveals the lowest weight loss no significant improvement in the thermal behavior and might among other systems due to the early formation of crosslinking accelerate some kind of degradation reactions.

Similarly, for the network structure. However in the case of pHBA-pt, adding LiI still pHBA-pt, adding IMD slightly shifts the exotherm peak and conse- shows significant improvement in the exothermic peak but almost quently slight drop in the weight loss which might be attributed to identical TGA behavior to the system without catalyst was ob- the methylol condensation and some degradation reactions. This implies that the addition of LiI accelerates the ring- By adding PTSA as an acid catalyst to P-pt, there is a significant opening reaction of benzoxazine which has no attributed weight shift in the exothermic peak as seen earlier from the DSC but the loss or any kind of volatile compounds.

On the other hand, the TGA indicates an early improvement in the char yield. The in- DSC thermograms show that adding IMD to either P-pt or pHBA- creased char yield arises from the early crosslinking structure pt exhibits a slight shift in the exothermic peak temperature.

For formed due to the ring-opening polymerization. On the other hand, example, although the DSC shows a slight shift in the exothermic using PTSA as a catalyst for pHBA-pt, the DSC shows significant peak, the thermal behavior of P-pt monomer in the presence or ab- shift of exothermic peak towards the lowest temperature com- sence of IMD was almost identical. Since there is no volatile or pared to other systems.

The aforementioned result confirms the higher crosslinking density in the polymers prepared from methylol ben- 60 0. The TGA re- 0. Therefore, this enhancement in the thermoxidative stability of poly pHBA-pt compared to poly P-pt comes from the Fig.

Although there is an early weight loss using PTSA, this catalyst still show high efficiency among others for pHBA-pt due to the significant shift of the exothermic peak and early methylol con- 4. Conclusions densation reaction together with ring-opening polymerization of oxazine ring. The incorporation of methylol group into benzoxazine structure was successfully achieved and found to lower the polymerization temperature compared to the non-functionalized monomer.

The 3. Thermal properties of the crosslinked polymers monomer is polymerized through both ring-opening polymeriza- The thermal degradation of poly P-pt , poly pHBA-pt and tion of oxazine ring and condensation of methylol groups.

The variation in the average activation ener- Fig. The of the monomers. The TGA analysis shows that the introduc- ture than monomers polymerized through both ring-opening of tion of methylol group as additional crosslinking site into oxazine ring and methylol condensation. In addition, catalyzed benzoxazine structure leads to a significant enhancement in the benzoxazine study shows that systems using LiI and PTSA are effi- thermal properties of polybenzoxazine including the char yield, cient in reducing the polymerization temperatures.

However in polymerization. Furthermore, the polymer prepared from methylol mono- suggesting the higher thermal stability of the synthesized polymer. The difference in the decomposition behavior of the polymers is M. Baqar acknowledges the Ministry of Higher Education and attributed to the nature of their structures. For example, traditional Scientific Research of Libya and Azzaytuna university-Libya for a polybenzoxazines prepared from non-functionalized monomer, scholarship.

Sudo, R. Kudoh, H. Nakayama, K. Arima, T. Endo, Macromolecules 41 — Sudo, S. Hirayama, T. Endo, J. Part A: Polym. Tillet, B. Boutevin, B. Ameduri, Prog. Kubisa, S. Penczek, Prog. Kim, Z.

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Brunovska, H. Ishida, Polymer 40 — Dusek, M. Duskova-Smrckova, Prog.

Ishida, J. Ma, J. Gao, J. B — Agag, T. Takeichi, Macromolecules 34 — Baekeland, Patent , Takeichi, Macromolecules 36 — Gardziella, L. Jubsilp, and S. Tasdelen, B. Kiskan, B. Gacal, F. Kasapoglu, L. Cianga, and Y. Baqar, T. Agag, S. Qutubuddin, and H. Gorodisher, R.

DeVoe, and R.

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Geiger, and H. Ishida Thermal degradation mechanism of polybenzoxazines J.

Hacaloglu, T. Uyer, and H. Alhassan, D.


Schiraldi, T. Ishida Side and end chain benzoxazine functional polymers B. Kiskan, and Y. Flexible - Read on multiple operating systems and devices.

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Institutional Subscription. Free Shipping Free global shipping No minimum order. Contributors Preface Chapter 1.

Introduction 2. Benzoxazine chemistry 3. Polymerization mechanisms 4. Unique properties of benzoxazines and polybenzoxazines 5. Molecular origin of unusual properties 6.

Historical development of monomeric benzoxazines 7. Recent development of high molecular weight benzoxazines 8.

Benzoxazines combined with other polymerizing groups 9. Various technologies attractive for applications Characterization of benzoxazines Conclusion Chapter 2. Synthesis of benzoxazine monomers in homogeneous solution 2. Synthesis of benzoxazine monomers in heterogeneous solution 3. Synthesis of benzoxazine monomers by melt or high solid methods 4. Benzoxazine ring formation mechanism 5. Conclusion Chapter 3. Molecular Modeling 1.

Chemical reaction 3. Structure analysis 4. Structure-property relationship 5. Summary and remarks Chapter 4. Chemistry and development of benzoxazines 2. Single crystallography of monofunctional benzoxazine dimer 4. Asymmetric reaction of monofunctional benzoxazine dimer 5.

Benzoxazine dimer and its metal ion complexation 6. Conclusions Chapter 5. Materials and methods 3. Results and discussion 4.

Conclusions Chapter 6. Chemorheology of Benzoxazine-based Resins 1. Chemorheology of benzoxazine-based resins 3.

Gelation of benzoxazine-based resins investigated by FTMS 4. Conclusion Chapter 7. Polymerization Kinetics 1.

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Kinetic analysis of resin polymerization reaction 3. Conclusions Chapter 8. Electrochemical Polymerization of Benzoxazines 1. Experimental 3. Electrochemical polymerization of benzoxazines 4. Conclusions Chapter 9. Light-Induced Reactions of Benzoxazines and Derivatives 1. Free radical systems 3. Cationic systems 4. Photodimerization 5. UV stability of benzoxazine resins 6.

Conclusion Chapter Polymerization mechanism of benzoxazine monomers 3. Substituted benzoxazine monomers 4. Carboxylic acid functional benzoxazine monomers 5. Hydroxyl-functional benzoxazine monomers 6. Proposed colbert reaction mechanism 5. Linear aromatic polymers 6. Hydrogen Bonding of Polybenzoxazines 1.

Structure of hydrogen bonding 3. Thermal Properties Enhancement of Polybenzoxazines 1. Polymerization of benzoxazine monomers 3.Alhassan, D. Therefore, the DSC thermograms of pHBA, P- the out-of-plane vibration of benzene ring to which oxazine is at- pt and pHBA-pt represent the polymerization behavior through tached confirms the formation of the monomer.

Larroque, P. In addition, the systems show that the heating are summarized in Table 1. The ring-opening polymerization temperature in ous applications. Kubisa, S. Although there is an early weight loss using PTSA, this catalyst still show high efficiency among others for pHBA-pt due to the significant shift of the exothermic peak and early methylol con- 4.

Ishida, Polymer 40 — Chou, J.